Big scientific encyclopedia "Biochemistry and Molecular biology": hormones, vitamins, amino acids, neurochemistry, protein biochemistry, cellular respiration, gene expression, chemical pathology.
Biochemistry (biological, or physiological chemistry) is the science of the chemical composition of living cells and organisms, as well as the chemical processes underlying their vital activity.
Molecular biology is a complex of biological sciences that study the mechanisms of storage, transmission and implementation of genetic information, the structure and functions of complex high-molecular compounds that make up a cell: irregular biopolymers (proteins and nucleic acids). Molecular biology research methods: genetic engineering, cloning, artificial expression. Molecular biology has become much closer to genetics, and molecular genetics has formed at the junction. Computer technology is used to analyze genetic information, which led to the emergence of bioinformatics, genomics and proteomics.
Molecular genetics is a branch of biology that studies how differences in the structure or expression of DNA molecules manifest as differences between organisms. The area of research is based on the fusion of several subsections of biology: classical Mendelian inheritance, cell biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology. Researchers look for or cause mutations in a gene to associate a gene sequence with a specific phenotype.
Neurochemistry studies the chemical processes that occur during the functioning of the nervous system; this is one of the most complex, modern and rapidly developing areas of biochemistry and neurobiology.
Biomolecules are organic substances that are synthesized by living organisms. The composition of biomolecules includes proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, as well as smaller components of metabolism. Typically, biomolecules are made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur atoms. Other elements are included in biologically significant substances much less frequently.
Hormones are biologically active substances of an organic nature, produced in specialized cells of the endocrine glands, entering the bloodstream, binding to the receptors of target cells and having a regulatory effect on metabolism and physiological functions. Hormones serve as humoral regulators of certain processes in various organs.
Vitamins are a group of low molecular weight organic compounds of relatively simple structure and various chemical nature. This is a group of organic substances necessary for a heterotrophic organism as an integral part of food. Most vitamins are coenzymes or precursors.
Enzymes are complex protein compounds, RNA (ribozymes) or their complexes, which accelerate chemical reactions in living systems. Each enzyme, folded into a certain structure, accelerates the corresponding chemical reaction: the reagents in such a reaction are called substrates, and the resulting substances are called products. Enzymatic activity can be regulated: increased by activators and decreased by inhibitors.
Amino acids are organic compounds, the molecule of which simultaneously contains carboxyl and amine groups. About 500 naturally occurring amino acids are known (although only 20 are used in the genetic code). Amino acids can be regarded as derivatives of carboxylic acids in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by amino groups.
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